Coke and Pepsi proxy conflict with activist investor over sugar hints at future skirmishes

Harrington Investments is locked in a battle with PepsiCo and Coca-Cola that may require the soda giants to be extra clear concerning the impression their sugary drinks have on public well being. Now, it simply must hope that sufficient of its fellow shareholders agree.

The small California funding agency is asking shareholders to vote on a measure requiring PepsiCo and Coca-Cola to supply the knowledge by way of an impartial report, with a concentrate on drinks marketed to kids and younger customers. 

“We now have to place continued stress and chip away at them and present that we’re not going away. This problem is not going away,” mentioned Brianna Harrington, a analysis analyst and shareholder advocacy coordinator at Harrington Investments. “It is solely going to change into an increasing number of related. It is solely going to change into extra severe.” 

The continuing battle with PepsiCo and Coca-Cola may provide a glimpse into future skirmishes down the street the place shareholders search extra affect in company America on points protecting the whole lot from politics and variety to well being and the surroundings. 

Up to now, investor success has been largely relegated to subjects comparable to board make-up or government compensation. However there are indicators environmental and social points are garnering extra consideration through the annual proxy season — and gaining momentum that might in the future result in extra of them profitable a majority of shareholder assist.  

Permission granted by Coca-Cola


Harrington Investments, which focuses on socially accountable investing and shareholder rights, first launched the sugar and public well being proposal in Coca-Cola’s annual proxy in 2019. Emboldened by what it seen as its success there, it launched an identical decision a 12 months later at PepsiCo and McDonald’s. In 2020, 7% of Coca-Cola’s shareholders voted in favor of the measure, up from 4.9% in 2019. The decision at PepsiCo acquired the backing of 11% of shareholders in 2020. 

“Growing the voting threshold — that’s important simply to indicate that there’s rising assist for this problem and shareholders have gotten more and more extra involved concerning the problem, particularly with the pandemic,” she mentioned. 

Howard Berkenblit, a company and securities lawyer who oversees the capital-markets group at Sullivan & Worcester, mentioned it isn’t unusual for lots of a majority of these shareholder proposals to get low assist.

“That is why corporations need to improve the thresholds [for a resolution] as a result of it turns into … an annoyance and a trouble for the corporate that it has to place this of their proxy assertion yearly and to must tally up the votes and clarify themselves,” he mentioned.

Soda and different sugary drinks and snacks are underneath hearth as elevated consumption of the sweetener has change into related to a better danger of situations comparable to weight problems, coronary heart illness, diabetes and most cancers. These and different illnesses even have been tied to a larger probability of creating severe issues from COVID-19.

Harrington Investments has a small place in every beverage maker, proudly owning 50 shares of PepsiCo and 100 shares of Coca-Cola, in keeping with every firm’s proxy. The inventory was valued at $7,200 and $5,350, respectively, based mostly on Friday’s value on the shut of buying and selling. The agency acknowledges it is dealing with an uphill climb convincing in any other case reluctant corporations to maneuver ahead.

“The businesses is probably not prepared to take motion, however we expect it is essential for shareholders to have the chance to vote on this,” she mentioned. “Shareholder stress is important.”

Her agency talked with the authorized council from PepsiCo in January, however the New York-based firm wasn’t “very wanting to undertake this,” Harrington mentioned. “They only wished to debate, basically, the nice issues they’d executed and reiterate that it’s pointless for them to do such a report.” The advisory agency hasn’t had any dialogue with Coca-Cola on the decision this 12 months.

‘A trouble for the corporate’

PepsiCo and Coca-Cola each really helpful shareholders vote towards Harrington’s decision of their proxy. Homeowners of Coca-Cola’s inventory are anticipated to vote on the measure throughout its digital shareholders assembly on April 20, whereas PepsiCo’s will probably be up for a vote throughout its assembly on Could 5.

Spokespersons with PepsiCo and Coca-Cola each declined to remark past the positions outlined by the businesses of their latest shareholder proxies.

In its submitting, PepsiCo’s board of administrators mentioned it stays “dedicated to responsibly advertising our meals and drinks, notably to kids.”

Barry Brecheisen through Getty Pictures


PepsiCo added it “has set a strong and significant purpose” for at the least two-thirds of its international beverage portfolio to have 100 or fewer energy coming from added sugar per 12-ounce serving by 2025. The snack and beverage maker mentioned it’s working towards this purpose by reformulating its drinks to cut back added sugar, providing low and no sugar merchandise in addition to smaller portion sizes, and introducing new choices that lack or have much less of the sweetener.

“By way of our added sugar discount effort, we consider we aren’t solely addressing the issues raised on this proposal but additionally are creating new alternatives for aggressive benefit and future market development,” PepsiCo mentioned.

Coca-Cola’s board of administrators mentioned in its proxy {that a} report on sugar and public well being already exists and an extra doc “wouldn’t present added worth or data for our stakeholders.” The board added the proposal suggests Coca-Cola will not be taking steps to assist folks reasonable sugar consumption, an announcement the corporate disagreed with.

The maker of Weight loss program Coke, Sprite and Fanta famous it has accelerated the growth of its beverage portfolio away from sugar into merchandise like tea, dairy, water and occasional. The Atlanta firm additionally has taken steps to cut back added sugar in its current merchandise. Coca-Cola reduce the quantity of the sweetener in almost 1,000 drinks, together with 600 collectively in 2018 and 2019, the corporate mentioned. In 2019 alone, it claimed to have eliminated 350,000 tons of sugar on an annualized foundation.

“The businesses is probably not prepared to take motion, however we expect it is essential for shareholders to have the chance to vote on this. Shareholder stress is important.”

Brianna Harrington

Analysis analyst and shareholder advocacy coordinator, Harrington Investments

It isn’t arduous to see why corporations typically object to shareholder proposals. Along with the undesirable publicity, they are often pricey and time-consuming for corporations to assessment as they require involvement by senior executives, the board of administrators and legal professionals.

Rick Hansen, beforehand the company secretary and assistant normal counsel at Common Motors, mentioned in a letter to the Securities and Trade Fee final 12 months that the auto big spends about 75 hours on every shareholder proposal it receives. Whereas GM mentioned it does not try to assign a greenback worth to every one, it agreed with commenters to the SEC previously who estimated a value of between $87,000 to $150,000.

Shareholder assist on the upswing

There may be rising proof that momentum for so-called ESG resolutions — environmental, social and governance — are gaining assist amongst shareholders who count on the businesses they put money into to take a stand on the identical points which are essential to them as traders and customers. 

The variety of shareholder proposals that went to a vote rose from 426 in 2019 to 434 in 2020 — the primary improve in 5 years, in keeping with knowledge supplied by Glass Lewis, a proxy advisory agency. The corporate famous whereas common investor assist for shareholder resolutions declined to 31.7% in 2020 from 32.9% a 12 months earlier, there was “a big year-over-year improve” within the proportion of majority-supported environmental and social shareholder proposals. 

“It seems that the bottom is shifting with respect to how traders are viewing shareholder proposals, and ESG-related points, extra broadly,” Glass Lewis wrote in a report reviewing the 2020 proxy season. “These proposals will proceed to play an more and more essential function in traders’ engagement with corporations on essential environmental, social, and governance points.”

Meg Jones-Monteiro, program director of well being fairness on the Interfaith Heart on Company Duty, mentioned customers’ curiosity in being wholesome and watching what they eat and drink has put stress on corporations to reply by way of their product combine — a shift that’s being carefully watched by traders who may lose cash if their shares decline as gross sales fall or development slows. This has naturally opened the door to corporations to be extra participating on environmental and social points, she mentioned.

“The hope is that if [consumer and investor pressure] converge, then you definately’re in a position to push corporations in the suitable path,” mentioned Jones-Monteiro, whose coalition represents greater than 300 international institutional traders. “The businesses are additionally conscious of this. They’re recognizing that there’s shopper demand, so that they must make a few of these adjustments.”

Christopher Doering/Meals Dive


Shareholders may quickly discover it tougher to submit resolutions for a vote at annual conferences. The U.S. Securities and Trade Fee narrowly handed a rule final September that may require shareholders to carry $25,000 of inventory for at the least one 12 months, up from $2,000 at the moment, with the intention to submit such proposals. For longer-term traders, that degree will fall to $15,000 after at the least two years and $2,000 after three years. The rule is anticipated to enter impact subsequent proxy season. 

The SEC is also rising the edge every proposal should accumulate to ensure that it to be resubmitted for a vote to five% the primary 12 months, 15% the second and 25% the third. At the moment, the extent for resubmission is 3%, 6% and 10%.

Berkenblit mentioned whereas momentum is constructing, particularly for environmental and social points in annual proxies, proposals comparable to these coping with “sugary drinks … are nonetheless decrease on the radar of activist traders; they don’t seem to be half of a bigger motion.”

He was uncertain Harrington would garner a “important quantity” of votes except it spends more cash or mounts an aggressive marketing campaign. The extra seemingly situation, Berkenblit predicted, was the resolutions would accumulate the backing of 10% to fifteen% of shareholders.

Firms in lots of circumstances are reluctant to permit shareholder proposals, particularly relating to a problem or an trade they consider they perceive higher than an out of doors shareholder, Berkenblit mentioned. 

Firms need to handle their very own affairs, and if you happen to do not like the best way they’re doing issues, vote towards the board or vote together with your ft and promote the inventory,” he mentioned, noting a stance taken by many corporations.

When a shareholder requests including a decision to an annual assembly, corporations have a couple of choices. They will embody it within the proxy — the trail of least resistance — or attain a compromise with the shareholder to get the proposal withdrawn. In circumstances the place these do not happen, corporations can apply for an exclusion from the SEC, or search for procedural hurdles to cease it, comparable to if the particular person hasn’t held the shares for lengthy sufficient or did not get the proposal in on time to be included.

Whereas many proposals by no means get accepted, even ones that do not succeed can function a place to begin to construct momentum for future motion, both by way of different resolutions or motion by the corporate itself. Harrington mentioned her agency is hopeful it can obtain sufficient assist to remain on Coca-Cola and PepsiCo’s proxies for one more 12 months, however that it could “attempt a special method” it has but to outline it if falls brief.

“It might be a victory for us to proceed to press the problem,” she mentioned, noting the sugar and public well being decision is much more related than when Harrington Investments first proposed it in 2019. “Until they obtain this type of stress, they don’t seem to be going to in all probability need to make a considerable change or simply do something that we’re asking them within the decision.”

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