The danger of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat (RTE) fish merchandise requires additional consideration, in accordance with a long-awaited EFSA and ECDC research.
The European Centre for Illness Management and Prevention (ECDC), European Meals Security Authority (EFSA) and European Union Reference Laboratory (EURL) for Listeria monocytogenes, on the French Company for Meals, Environmental and Occupational Well being and Security (ANSES), started the European Listeria Typing Train (ELiTE) in 2010 to explain listeriosis in people and Listeria monocytogenes in meals.
Researchers discovered a excessive diploma of dissemination of sure Listeria micro organism within the meals chain and in individuals throughout the European Union. There was a robust hyperlink with RTE fish merchandise in a number of recognized clusters.
A cluster means isolates are genetically comparable so probably originate from a typical supply. If human and meals isolates are in the identical cluster it’s a sturdy indication the meals could have brought on the infections. Nonetheless, microbiological findings alone aren’t sufficient to hyperlink meals with infections, with epidemiological proof additionally wanted, in accordance with the report’s authors.
Deal with fish merchandise
Prevention and management of Listeria contamination in fish manufacturing amenities might scale back meals contamination and doubtlessly human diseases. A assessment of enterprise compliance with microbiological standards must also be thought of, significantly for fish merchandise, in accordance with the research.
Work coated knowledge about public well being and meals from 13 and 23 EU member states, respectively, and concerned three classes of RTE meals: packaged scorching or chilly smoked or “gravad” (cured) fish, mushy or semi-soft cheeses, and packed heat-treated meat merchandise. In complete, 580 human isolates and 413 meals isolates had been included within the analysis with the bulk from fish samples. From the human knowledge, no less than 75 individuals had been identified to have died.
The research used molecular typing, which is a method of figuring out particular strains of microorganisms, by taking a look at their genetic materials. The tactic was pulsed discipline gel electrophoresis (PFGE), which was a well-established, standardized strategy throughout the time interval coated by the research.
PFGE is now being phased out and changed by complete genome sequencing (WGS). ECDC and EFSA WGS databases are anticipated to be operational by June 2022. The mission mapped clustering PFGE varieties with respective clonal complexes (CCs) characterised by WGS.
There have been 78 separate clusters by PFGE profiles, involving 573 Listeria monocytogenes isolates. Of those, 21 included human and meals Listeria monocytogenes isolates, 47 had been solely human, and 10 solely meals.
Within the 21 human-food clusters, nearly 90 % of meals isolates had been from fish merchandise, with almost 10 % from delicatessen meat and 1 % from cheese merchandise. There have been 9 multi-country clusters with greater than 10 instances and three concerned 13, 14, and 15 nations.
The quantity of Listeria in fish was typically low, however in 48 samples exceeded the microbiological restrict of 100 colony forming models per gram (cfu/g). Solely six meat and one cheese product had counts above 100 cfu/g.
Of 78 clusters by PFGE profiles, 57 had been small, as much as 5 Listeria monocytogenes isolates per cluster. The biggest was Listeria monocytogenes clone CC8. It concerned 30 human and 56 meals Listeria monocytogenes isolates from 15 nations. This means it might be frequent in a number of nations and has doubtlessly been circulating in RTE fish manufacturing vegetation, in accordance with the research.
Specialists stated based mostly on the flexibility of Listeria to persist within the meals chain for years, this clone is prone to trigger massive cross-border outbreaks. It was linked to 12 infections in three nations from 2015 to 2018 and 22 infections involving 5 nations from 2014 to 2019.
One other clone, CC121, was linked to 4 clusters with only a few human isolates, suggesting decrease virulence of the strains and presumably requiring a better infectious dose. There was one nine-country cluster of 30 Listeria monocytogenes meals isolates and no matches with human infections.
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